Sociology: Terms and Definitions
by Xavier Donat
The term sociology has Latin roots – socius translates to the English word companion the suffix -ology refers to the study of something. Knowing that sociology is the examine of one’s companions sparks keen curiosity in men and women who want to know why people do what they do. Start off below with this fast dictionary – Sociology: Phrases and Definitions – and make it your personal as your understanding of the science of social behaviors expands and your listing of sociology’s phrases and definitions grows.
Antipositivism – The belief that society is ideal analyzed in a loosely structured way that depends on observation and anecdote (qualitative) instead than the scientific examine of positivism (quantitative).
Utilized Sociology – Employs the pure results of sociological research to obtain greater knowing of concerns this sort of as schooling, marriage, ethnic relations, criminology, and community.
Computational Sociology – The use of synthetic intelligence and pc simulations to examine complicated statistical information to model or predict social interaction.
Comte, Auguste (1798-1857) – French science thinker who unified the reports of economics, background, and psychology to define the field of sociology.
Gender Roles – Behavioral and societal distinctions stated to be inseparable with how an individual relates to his or her social society.
Human Ecology – Scientific studies the associations in a provided inhabitants from a organic and behavioral perspective to assess scenarios this sort of as criminality and mental disease.
Specific Agency – The ability of an person to make independent selections, performing on cost-free will distinction with social composition.
Marx, Karl (1818-1883) – Considered by several to be the accurate father of sociology distinction with August Comte.
Modernity – the period of time of time following the medieval that marks a transfer absent from an agriculture-dependent feudal society to a much more city-primarily based culture pushed economically by capitalism and industrialism and culturally by the philosophies of nation-point out relations, secularization, and rationalism.
Nuclear Household – Regarded as a central aspect of a secure society, this social device is made up of a father, mother, and their offspring sharing the identical living quarters.
Inhabitants, or Demography – Scientific studies the quantifiable numbers defining a inhabitants, this kind of as racial, gender, or age composition.
Positivism – Comte’s belief that scientific appreciation of the earlier qualified prospects to much better comprehension of the foreseeable future in regard to theology and the metaphysical realm, therefore bettering society in basic.
Sieyes, Emmanuel-Joseph (1748-1836) – French essayist who initial employed the phrase sociology in a manuscript (that was never published).
Social Modify and Disorganization – Scientific studies the way disruptions in cultural or social associations affect an person or modern society.
Social Organization – Scientific studies the numerous institutions and stratifications that make up a society.
Social Psychology – Studies how individual human character is impacted by existence in a team.
Social Sciences – All fields of study that look at modern society, such as but not restricted to anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education and learning, linguistics, and political science.
Social Framework – Patterns of social arrangement that define a modern society and impact person selection, this kind of as faculties, federal government, and regional law distinction with personal company.
Sociological Principle and Approach – Scientific studies how the regulation of one’s setting affects the daily life of a team.